The colonies were romanticized. [21] The conservative Bülow government barely survived, but in January 1907 the newly elected Reichstag imposed a "complete overhaul" upon the colonial service. Cambridge, Mass., 1971. Although some territories' borders were redrawn, the League of Nations' mandate system allowed Great Britain, France, Belgium, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan to extend their wartime control over the former German colonies into the postwar era. Translated by Diane Webb. Boston, 1998. The principal German colonial possessions were its African holdings (German East Africa, Togoland, German Southwest Africa, and Cameroons) and its Far East territories (German New Guinea, Samoa, the Chinese leasehold of Kiaochow, and a number of small island groups). . These are colonies settled by and controlled by the German Empire from 1884 to 1919. Until their 1871 unification, the German states had not concentrated on the development of a navy, and this essentially had precluded German participation in earlier imperialist scrambles for remote colonial territory – the so-called "place in the sun". [21] Bernhard Dernburg’s declaration that the indigenous population in the protectorates "was the most important factor in our colonies" was affirmed by new laws. [51] To "allay President [Woodrow] Wilson's suspicions of British imperialism", the system of "mandates" was drawn up and agreed to by the British War Cabinet (with the French and Italians in tow),[52] a device by which conquered enemy territory would be held not as a possession but as "sacred trusts". Some historians argue that Germany's role in southwestern Africa gave rise to an emphasis on racial superiority at home, which in turn was used by the Nazis. The German stat… [7] "Indeed, in 1889, [Bismarck] tried to give German South West Africa away to the British. Germany seemed destined to play catch-up. ." [69] Fischer also subjected them to numerous racial tests such as head and body measurements, eye and hair examinations. The German Colonial Empire is the overseas territories of Imperial Germany, including settlements and colonies in Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Hiery, Hermann. One reason was that the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, before that there was no “Germany” that could, as a nation, colonize anyone. . [69] An estimated 3000 skulls were sent to Germany for study. By conjuring up a German 'black peril' [at their doorstep], Smuts caught the public’s imagination. The end of the Franco-Prussian war saw Franceball wracked by a civil insurgency in the form of the Paris Commune, and the treaty of Frankfort in 1871 that ended hostilities forced her to pay reparations and give the German Empireball Alsace-Lorraine, making her a sworn enemy of the German Empireball. [50] The principle of "self-determination", embodied in the League of Nations covenant was not considered to apply to these colonies and was "regarded as meaningless". "[59], The German colonists included people like Carl Peters who brutalized the local population.[60]. By the time the diplomats assembled at Versailles in 1919 to negotiate the peace settlement, Germany had lost all of its colonies. The Japanese quickly took control of the islands that made up German Micronesia and by October more than sixty thousand Japanese troops, as well as two British battalions, were amassed around the city of Tsingtao. [22] Governor Wilhelm Solf of Samoa would call the islanders "unsere braunen Schützlinge" [our brown charges], who could be guided but not forced. L'Allemagne du Saint-Empire au deuil post-colonial", Clermont-Ferrand,PUBP, coll. [54], President Wilson saw the League of Nations as "'residuary trustee' for the [German] colonies" captured and occupied by "rapacious conquerors". Germans first became active as traders in the Pacific in the mid-nineteenth century, in which German merchants developed trading interests in Samoa, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the Marshall and Gilbert Islands. There the remnants of the "protective force" held out for more than two additional months. In stark contrast with French and English, both of which are widely spoken across the continent by those of both African and European ancestry, the German language is not a significant language in Africa even within former colonies; although it is spoken by a significant minority of the population of Namibia. African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon. The establishment of German colonies and attempts to expand them affected international politics in a period of extreme tension. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Aware that its Chinese territories could not be defended, Germany unsuccessfully sought to convince the Chinese to allow Berlin, in accordance with terms of the original Kiaochow Treaty, to sell back the colony to China. The German colonial empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany. [26] Political and economic subjugation of Herero and Nama was envisioned, both the colonial authorities and settlers were of the opinion that native Africans were to be a lower class, their land seized and handed over to settlers and companies, while the remaining population was to be put in reservations; the Germans planned to make a colony inhabited predominately by whites:a "new African Germany" [27], The established merchants and plantation operators in the African colonies frequently managed to sway government policies. GENEALOGY OF THE TERM DECOLONIZATION "The British Other on African soil: the rise of nationalism in colonial German travel writing on Africa,", Strandmann, Hartmut Pogge von. Kaiser Wilhelm II understood and lamented his nation's position as colonial followers rather than leaders. A certain concession to ... ...teenth-century upper class which still squats so firmly in our Foreign and Colonial Offices, and that is the question of forced labour. [43] This new member of the war cabinet spoke of German schemes for world power, militarization and exploitation of resources. German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea) consisted of the northeastern part of the island of New Guinea and several nearby island groups and was the first part of the German colonial empire. "[5] However, in 1884 he consented to the acquisition of colonies by the German Empire, in order to protect trade, to safeguard raw materials and export markets and to take opportunities for capital investment, among other reasons. Loosely-held empires disintegrate. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. In the Pacific, Britain's ally Japan declared war on Germany in 1914 and quickly seized several of Germany's island colonies, the Mariana, Caroline and Marshall Islands, with virtually no resistance. Although slavery was partially outlawed in 1905 by Germany, this caused a great deal of resentment and led eventually to revolts by the native population. See alsoColonialism; Germany; World War II. The combined strength of the British and the Belgians eventually forced the Germans to flee in November 1917 first to Mozambique and then to Northern Rhodesia, where they continued their guerrilla campaign. Germany seemed destined to play catch-up. Germany’s overseas colonies, virtually without hope of reinforcement from Europe, defended themselves with varying degrees of success against Allied attack.. Togoland was conquered by British forces from the Gold Coast (now Ghana) and by French forces from Dahomey (now Benin) in the first month of the war. With the concluding Treaty of Versailles, Article 22, German colonies were divided between Belgium, the United Kingdom, and certain British Dominions, France, and Japan with the determination not to see any of them returned to Germany — a guarantee secured by Article 119. Germany was a colonial power no different to murderous Belgium or Britain or the Unite... ... or Britain or the United States. The Legacy of the Great War: Peacemaking, 1919. Furthermore, the German Empire occupied several territories during WW1. Encyclopedia.com. Full Text Search Details..., being absent from their own families. After invading in September 1914, the South African troops made little progress at first as a result of a Boer rebellion within South Africa, and it was only in January 1915 that the South African leaders Louis Botha and Jan Christian Smuts were able to start prosecuting the war fully. 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